3O). 6A–G; Tables 1, 2), and in all peripheral nerves examined, including cranial nerve roots (arrows in Fig. Frozen 14‐ or 20‐μm sections were cut, collected on Superfrost Plus slides (Fisher Scientific, Edmonton, AB, Canada), and stored at −20°C. 3E), and in their endfeet on the pial surface (barbed arrows in Fig. 1D,F, bracket), but is also present in their processes (Fig. 4H). 3D,E), fimbria (Fig. Radial glial processes are enriched for SPARC near their basal (arrow in Fig. 4; Table 2). 4B). SPARC is expressed by Bergmann glia (S100+) at (C,E) P14 and (D) in the adult, with greatest intensely in their endfeet and cell bodies (arrow and arrowhead in D, respectively). SPARC is maintained at a low level in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ; Fig. 5I). A subset expresses (D inset) ADAM21 (arrow). 5) suggests that this deadhesive protein may play a role in maintaining microglial homeostasis in the normal brain, as it does in ovarian cancer cells (Said et al.,2007b). 3A–C). The rostral migratory stream contains SPARC that becomes progressively restricted to the SVZ in adulthood. K–M: SPARC is expressed by (K,M) microglia (Iba‐1+, arrow in M) in the olfactory bulb (OB), but not by (K,L) macrophages (Iba‐1+, arrow in L) in the olfactory nerve (ON). SPARC is also expressed by (A,B,E,I–K) blood vessels (BV, arrowheads), but is excluded from (D) Dcx‐positive immature neurons. SPARC null mice have a subtle phenotype that includes osteopenia (Delany et al.,2000), abnormal dermal collagen fibrils (Bradshaw et al.,2003b), cataractogenesis (Yan et al.,2002), and adiposity (Bradshaw et al.,2003a), and is exacerbated by challenge, including impaired wound healing (Basu et al.,2001; Bradshaw et al.,2002), and an impaired immune response (Kelly et al.,2007; Rempel et al.,2007). Our analysis revealed high levels of the glycoprotein, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), also known as osteonectin and basement membrane protein‐40 (BM‐40). If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, At E10.5/E11.5, SPARC is expressed in ventricular zones (VZ), including in the (A–D) septal neuroepithelium (SN) and (E) neural tube (NT), and is highly enriched at (F–H) brain flexures. SPARC can similarly be cleaved by proteases and MMPs to yield peptides with distinct functions (Lane et al.,1994; Iruela‐Arispe et al.,1995; Sasaki et al.,1997), and can also regulate protease expression and activation (Brekken and Sage,2000; McClung et al.,2007). 6A), facial nerves (Fig. Seven days after…, In SPARC nulls, microgliosis is increased and functional recovery is enhanced, following photothrombotic…, SPARC inhibits microglial proliferation in…, SPARC inhibits microglial proliferation in vivo and in vitro . 2J–N), SPARC is expressed in the central canal and floorplate. 4J–L). NIH 1C,E,F), and overlaps with regions of BLBP‐positive radial glia (Fig. 2019;68(2):695-710. doi: 10.3233/JAD-181032. Radial glial endfeet provide anchorage at the meningeal basement membrane of the pia mater to support the highly extended morphology of radial fibres in the developing brain. Indeed, Bergmann glia in the cerebellum and Müller glia in the retina express SPARC in the adult brain (Fig. SPARC is also expressed by microglia (Iba‐1‐positive, Fig. SPARC triggers a cell-autonomous program of synapse elimination. Here, we show that in the developing nervous system of the mouse, SPARC is expressed by radial glia, blood vessels, and other pial‐derived structures during embryogenesis and postnatal development. 5E). Scale bars = (A,B,H) 50 μm; (C,E) 25 μm; (G,I,J) 10 μm. Mice aged from P10 to adulthood were sacrificed by lethal intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (100 mg/kg)/xylazine (10 mg/kg) and transcardially perfused with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and 4% phosphate‐buffered formaldehyde (PFA). 6B–F), sciatic nerves (Fig. H–J: SPARC is expressed throughout development by olfactory ensheathing cells (arrows; nestin/BLBP/S100+), with greatest intensity at (H,I) E13.5 and weak expression in the (J) adult. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Some regions of the central nervous system (CNS) are now recognized to have a considerable capacity for repair and remodeling after injury (Carmichael,2006; Okano et al.,2007). 2A–C) and pia mater (asterisks in Fig. 2020 Oct;163:178-189. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.05.005. 2I). SPARC is expressed by (C,E–H) nestin+ radial glia, in their cell bodies (bracket in F) and processes (inset in C, arrow in F), and overlaps with regions of (A,B,I–K) BLBP+ radial glia (arrows). Epub 2018 Jul 25. Coincidental with the onset of synaptogenesis, SPARC is transiently expressed as punctate staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus during postnatal development (Fig. 1B,I–K). The widespread expression of SPARC by radial glia in the postnatal brain suggests that its expression may be retained in adult radial glia. SPARC regulates the expression of collagen type I and transforming growth factor‐beta1 in mesangial cells, SPARC regulates cell cycle progression in mesangial cells via its inhibition of IGF‐dependent signaling, SPARC regulates TGF‐beta1‐dependent signaling in primary glomerular mesangial cells, The Ca2(+)‐binding glycoprotein SPARC modulates cell cycle progression in bovine aortic endothelial cells, Generation of an environmental niche for neural stem cell development by the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin C, SPARC‐like 1 regulates the terminal phase of radial glia‐guided migration in the cerebral cortex, Beta1‐class integrins regulate the development of laminae and folia in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, Signaling of de‐adhesion in cellular regulation and motility, Estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in Schwann‐like brain macroglia, A critical function of the pial basement membrane in cortical histogenesis, Postnatal shifts of interneuron position in the neocortex of normal and reeler mice: evidence for inward radial migration, Identification of major cell classes in the developing mammalian nervous system, In vivo expression of mRNA for the Ca+‐binding protein SPARC (osteonectin) revealed by in situ hybridization, Association of SPARC (osteonectin, BM‐40) with extracellular and intracellular components of the ciliated surface ectoderm of Xenopus embryos, Increased sensitivity to the stimulant effects of morphine conferred by anti‐adhesive glycoprotein SPARC in amygdala, Expression of SPARC during development of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane: evidence for regulated proteolysis in vivo, The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nerves, Osteonectin/SPARC regulates cellular secretion rates of fibronectin and laminin extracellular matrix proteins, The adult mouse subependymal zone regenerates efficiently in the absence of tenascin‐C, SPARC is a VCAM‐1 counter‐ligand that mediates leukocyte transmigration, SPARC (BM‐40, osteonectin) inhibits the mitogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on microvascular endothelial cells, Early activation, motility, and homing of neonatal microglia to injured neurons does not require protein synthesis, SPARC is a source of copper‐binding peptides that stimulate angiogenesis, Olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory nerve fibroblasts maintain continuous open channels for regrowth of olfactory nerve fibres, Tenascin‐R plays a role in neuroprotection via its distinct domains that coordinate to modulate the microglia function, Noggin antagonizes BMP signaling to create a niche for adult neurogenesis, Entorhinal deafferentation induces upregulation of SPARC in the mouse hippocampus, Restricted proliferation and migration of postnatally generated neurons derived from the forebrain subventricular zone, Evolutionary conservation and association of SPARC with the basal lamina in Drosophila, SPARC upregulates MT1‐MMP expression, MMP‐2 activation, and the secretion and cleavage of galectin‐3 in U87MG glioma cells, Expression of the gene encoding the extracellular matrix glycoprotein SPARC in the developing and adult mouse brain, Developmental expression in the rat cerebellum of SC1, a putative brain extracellular matrix glycoprotein related to SPARC, SPARC, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein containing the follistatin module, is expressed by astrocytes in synaptic enriched regions of the adult brain, Anatomy of the brain neurogenic zones revisited: fractones and the fibroblast/macrophage network, Inhibition of PDGF‐stimulated and matrix‐mediated proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by SPARC is independent of changes in cell shape or cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitors, Fibroblast growth factor receptor‐1 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and the promotion of skeletal myoblast differentiation by SPARC: a role for protein kinase A, Differential mRNA expression of the related extracellular matrix glycoproteins SC1 and SPARC in the rat embryonic nervous system and skeletal structure, Olfactory epithelium progenitors: insights from transgenic mice and in vitro biology, Integrin‐linked kinase deletion from mouse cortex results in cortical lamination defects resembling cobblestone lissencephaly, Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo, Regeneration of the central nervous system using endogenous repair mechanisms, Collagen IV is essential for basement membrane stability but dispensable for initiation of its assembly during early development, SPARC‐thrombospondin‐2‐double‐null mice exhibit enhanced cutaneous wound healing and increased fibrovascular invasion of subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges, Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex, Peripheral olfactory ensheathing cells reduce scar and cavity formation and promote regeneration after spinal cord injury, SPARC modulates cell growth, attachment and migration of U87 glioma cells on brain extracellular matrix proteins, Splenic and immune alterations of the Sparc‐null mouse accompany a lack of immune response, Lamina propria and olfactory bulb ensheathing cells exhibit differential integration and migration and promote differential axon sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord.
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